In this article, you know about components of a reverse osmosis system, types of filters used in the RO process, the working process of RO, the objective of the RO process and different types of membranes used in the RO process. Also, we discussed basic details regarding RO to know about it; click on our previous blog, which may also be useful.
Components Of A REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM:
The following are the components of a reverse osmosis system:
- Pressure Vessels & Membranes
- Membrane Housing
- TDS / Conductivity Meter
- Flow Meters
- Pressure Gauges
- Reverse Osmosis Skid
- Cartridge Filter
- High-Pressure Pump
- Control Panel
Types of filters used in RO systems process:
The RO membrane is the heart of the reverse osmosis system.
Every reverse osmosis water process includes filters like sediment, sand and activated carbon along with RO membrane. The filters used in this process are prefilters or post-filters, and they are based on the water passing through them before or after passing into the membrane.
The following are the types of filters used in the reverse osmosis process:
Sand / Sediment filter
Activated Carbon filter
Sand / Sediment filter: it reduces all the particles like dust, dirt and rust
Activated Carbon filter: it can reduce all VOCs(volatile organic compounds), chlorine, and some contaminants that give water a very bad taste or odour
Semipermeable membrane: it can remove up to 99.5% of TDS (total dissolved solids).
The objective of introduction RO process:
The main objective of introducing the RO process is to supply chemical free water, fresh and clean water.
The following steps are included in the RO process:
Step 1: first, the feedwater enters into the RO system.
Step 2: from the RO system, this feed water enters into the prefiltration process. Prefiltration contains filters like both carbon and sediment to remove all the sediments and chlorine that can completely damage the RO membrane.
Step 3: through high pressure pumps, the prefiltered feed water passes through the Semipermeable membrane where all the dissolved particles, even too tiny particles, are removed.
Step 4: After filtration, water flows into the storage tank, where it is done until needed. Then, a reverse osmosis process continues filtering the water until that storage tank is full and then off.
Step 5: Once you turn on the drinking water tap, water comes out from the storage tank through a post-filter to purify the drinking water before it gets to the tap.
Different types of membranes used in the Reverse Osmosis process:
The following are the different types of membranes used in the RO process:
- Spiral membrane
- Stainless steel membrane
- Plate& frame membranes
- Ceramic membranes.
- Tubular membranes
- Hollowfibre membrane
Prefer to this RO process to purify your water and to consume clean water every day.
Reverse osmosis is a process to remove all contaminants from feed water by applying external pressure forces on a semipermeable membrane. In this process, the feed water flows from the high concentrated side of the RO membrane to the low concentrated side (fewer contaminants) through a semipermeable membrane to give fresh and clean drinking water. The concentrated water molecules left over is known as waste or brine.
A semipermeable membrane contains very small pores that can block all the contaminants and only allow water molecules to flow through it. In the osmosis process, less concentrated water moves towards high concentrated water through the membrane to maintain equilibrium on both sides. But the reverse osmosis process blocks all the highly concentrated contaminants from entering into the less concentrated side through the membrane. Suppose, for example, when pressure is applied to the volume of sugar water during this reverse osmosis, the sugar molecule is left on the high concentrated side, and clean water flows through the low concentrated side.
Working principle of Reverse osmosis:
RO process working principle is opposite to the osmosis process. Osmosis occurs naturally, but here in the RO process, we need to apply some external pressure on the high concentred contaminant side to pass water molecules into the low concentrated side to produce fresh and clean water.
What can a reverse osmosis system remove?
A reverse osmosis process can remove all dissolved solids like fluoride and arsenic through the RO membrane. It removes fluoride, salts, chlorine, pesticides and bad taste, odours, and dirt too.
Benefits of the reverse osmosis process:
- The following are the benefits of the reverse osmosis process:
- RO process removes all dissolved solids from water.
- This process also removes the bad tastes and odour of the water.
- It gives you clean and fresh water.
- You can easily install them and maintain them too.
The life span of reverse osmosis systems:
Reverse osmosis systems can at least last for 10 and 15 years. So absolutely, the system has a long lifespan; only the RO membrane and filters need to be replaced periodically. Both the pre filters and post-filters need to be changed every six months to 1 year. Depending on the water conditions, the RO membrane needs to be replaced every 2-4 years.
Applications of reverse osmosis:
The following are the reverse osmosis applications :
- Food and beverages,
- Pharmaceuticals industry
- Diary industries
- Coaching institutes
- Bus stands
The reverse osmosis process produces clean water and also gives you freshwater by removing harmful dissolved solids.
What is a Pressure Switch?
A pressure switch is nothing but a combination of mechanical and electronic devices activated automatically whenever the pressure feed water reaches a certain threshold during the water treatment process.
A pressure switch contains a bourdon tube, diaphragm, piston, or membrane that moves according to the pressure exerted by the system. These components are connected to more contacts within the switch. With a certain force, a contact may close or open the switch by depends on its configuration. Pressure switches are used in most industries to check the pressure.
Low-Pressure switches are mainly used to protect the pump/system from the dry run. Whenever there is a low-pressure situation that results in loss of feed water. Low inlet pressure converts the unit to produce more wastewater, less purified or product water, and it also protects the system. Generally, a pressure switch needs to place between the water/liquid pipe and pump. It turns off the pump if the water flow reduces from the main/feed supply or if the pressure is too low for the system to function properly.
The high-pressure switch is introduced to cut the pump off when the pressure reaches high. It controls high pressure when system gets trip.
Benefits of Low and High-Pressure Switches:
- High-pressure and Low-pressure switches aim to protect the RO Raw water / Booster Pump, RO membrane, High-Pressure Pump, and other system components from low or high or pressure damage.
- These Pressure Switches can automatically operate in a specified adjustment of low-pressure or high pressure.
Features of low pressure and high pressure switch from the Sahara industry:
The following are the features of low pressure and high pressure switches from the Sahara industry:
Easy to install.
Easy to maintain
Made up of Corrosion free wet parts.
Designed by developed engineering thermoplastic.
I hope this article is very useful to all, especially those who want to know clearly about low pressure and high pressures in water treatment.
Iron removal filter:
The Iron Removal Filters system is advanced equipment used to remove the iron content in the water by using low-pressure drops.
Iron removal filter systems:
Iron removal filter systems play a crucial role in water treatment systems. Iron is one of the elements majorly available in the earth’s crust. So removing iron from water is a very common problem in many countries. It is the earth’s crust, so it is soluble in water too. It is naturally soluble in water in the form of ferrous iron or ferric iron. Another reason for the iron element in water is that industries like mining, iron, and steel industry.
In order to remove iron from water, dissolved iron need to convert into a suspended form. Very effective removal of iron can be done in two processes. They are:
- Aeration process
- Filteration process.
The aeration process is again divided into the online aeration process and the offline aeration process.
Online aeration process:
Borewell water is pumped into the aeration tank. This tank was divided into three equal-sized chambers. The first chamber is designed as perforated sturdy sprinkle pipes where raw water is allowed through it. Then water can be travel into the other two chambers through different vents located at different baffle walls. Thus produced a zigzag motion in water.
When the water reaches the third chamber, it naturally contacts air, so the dissolved iron gets oxidized and converted into suspended iron. If the feed water PH range is acidic, add a measured dose of a suitable oxidizing agent removal process.
The aeration tank surface is not viable in terms of space constraints. The same needs to be constructed under the ground. In the underground aeration tank, aeration is handled by using a blower and diffuser. To remove underneath sludge precipitated by using sludge pump. Aeration tank’s efficiency may differ upon volumes, dimensions, and designs.
Offline aeration process:
The bore water is allowed into the aeration tank, a single chamber by specially designed sprinkles in this offline aeration process. Then the water needs to stagnate for up to 4 to 8 hours in the aeration tank for a very effective aeration process. If the feed water PH range is acidic, add a measured dose of a suitable oxidizing agent removal process.
Aeration water contains all the suspended iron particles and sent into ferrous free iron removal system with very depth filtration technology. Ferrous-free iron removal contains five layers of distinctive filter media that oxidize the dissolved leftover iron and filters the suspended solids, suspended iron, odor taste, bad color by VOID creations. These ferrous-free iron removals are designed according to the exact flow rate formula.
After the successful filtration process, the accumulated iron suspended particles need to be removed from the ferrous free unit by sending the water towards the reverse direction. In the reverse direction, the water with enough pressure will distrub the filter media and remove all the iron particles using the drain port.
After successful completion of the backwash, the agitated media will be allowed to settle by passing the water through filter media.
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Iron removal filter systems play a key role to remove iron content and gives us fresh water.
What are iron removal filters?
The Iron Removal Filters are manufactured mainly to remove the excess iron content in the water by using minimum pressure drop.
Working principle of iron removal filters:
Most iron removal filters work on the principle of oxidizing the iron (oxidation). So it can convert from a ferrous or dissolved to a ferric or undissolved state. When the iron is converted to a ferric state completely, it is scuttled on a filter bed.
For very low iron content in the water, the Filter contains Manganese Zeolite. The iron is oxidized to insoluble or undissolved hydrated oxides, removed by the Zeolite bed’s mechanical filtering action.
Different types of iron removal system processes:
Iron is one of the abundant elements available in the earth’s crust. So groundwater contains iron. It does not affect both human beings and the environment, but it changes the color of water, odor smell which may feel uncomfortable while drinking water. So it is important to remove iron from the water. The following are two types to remove iron from water. They are:
- Chemical iron removal systems.
- Biological iron removal system.
Chemical iron removal systems:
Iron is removed from water by creating an environment called oxidizing, but it should be very strong. It can be successfully created by using the aeration process. Add oxidants like chlorine, or else you can raise the PH range of water by using alkaline materials like limestone. Under these conditions, soluble ferrous iron is converted to ferric iron, forming a precipitate of insoluble iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) that filtration can remove. For many decades this process is adopted to treat groundwater throughout the world.
Biological iron removal systems:
Biological iron removal systems are among the best alternatives to Chemical iron removal systems for the past ten years. Microbiologists have discovered that certain bacteria have a strong capacity to oxidize and immobilize iron. bacteria play a key role in the whole process as natural inhabitants in the environment.
So microorganisms are necessary to start the process, and they are carried with the groundwater onto the filters. Then iron oxidizers require aeration to stimulate their growth, grows on the surface area of the filter bed like a slimy orange mat. So if it is in this bacterial activity zone, then the iron removal process appears to occur. Biological iron removal systems also conclude to everyone that the biological enchantment process is very efficient compared to the chemical iron removal technology.
Is iron in water causes any effect to human by consuming it?
Not at all. Iron in water does not affect humans and the environment too. It brings the only unpleasantness of an aesthetic and organoleptic nature. Iron also gives rust color to water sometimes. It also gives a metallic taste to water which seems difficult to drink.
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Iron removal filter systems are so helpful for removing iron from water.
A water softener is an updated method to remove hard water. In other words, hard water contains more calcium and magnesium, which affects household things and humans. So those effects are removed by the water softener process.
A water softener works to treat hardness in water by removing calcium and magnesium ions through a process known as ion exchange. Calcium and magnesium ions can cause hardness and damage everything in the home, so they are trapped through resin within the system and exchange them with the necessary amount of sodium ions. Finally, you get soft water as a final output.
How to find that you need a water softener?
The following signs make you know that you need a water softener:
- Mineral-like crust built up all around faucets.
- If your white clothes are dingy or any colors fading unusually
- Soap scum build-up in the sink or on any shower walls.
- If all your appliances break down quicker than their exact life span.
- Stiff clothing even after a load of laundry.
- Irritated skin or itching or dry skin and hair loss after you are showering.
The life span of a water softener:
The life span of a water softener always depends on water hardness and your usage. We cannot identify the life span of the water softener because it may differ based on daily usage and depends on resin. If you carefully maintain resin, then the life span time of the water softener is long-lasting.
Before and after water story of a water softener:
Before the water softener process lime softening process is used, the lime softening method uses calcium hydroxide to remove all hardness ions in water by precipitation. Soft water is achieved by adding lime only in the form of ca(oh)2, which reacts with cations to remove the hardness of carbonate, then reacts with anions to replace these non- carbonates due to multivalent cation and calcium. The Lime softening method produces huge volume sludge, consumes more time, and very hard and complicated process.
To make a more flexible water softener method is introduced. It works more effectively than the lime softening process, and it consumes less time than the lime softening process. The water softening process is very easy.
Different ranges of water softening plants:
FRP water softeners are available up to 2000 mm in diameter.
MS water softeners are available up to 3000 mm in diameter.
MS rubber lined water softeners available up to 2000 mm in diameter.
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The water softener method is the only effective way to remove hardness from water, and it is the best solution for those who are facing problems with hard water.